Participation — acts and expressions of inclusion in a group. For “communal sharing” relational model.
Hierarchy — discretionary awards. For authority ranking relational model.
Balancing — acts and expressions that make the recipient even with others in the group. For equality matching model.
Proportional — rewards given in a ratio according to the amount that the recipient contributed. For market pricing model.
Great quote from the conclusion:
The manner in which parents and teachers choose to incentivize children, how employers decide to incentivize workers, and the ways that governments select to incentivize citizens will shape our future social relationships and our society as a whole.
Using and responding to incentives is an important way for people to signal their relational beliefs and preferences.
While most of our theory’s predictions remain to be tested, below we present empirical evidence from anecdotes, experiments and observational data analyses, which support our premise that people use incentive schemes to effectuate specific relationship structures.
To illustrate the breadth of puzzles and new questions the theory sheds light on, in what follows we cover issues of incentive design at the organizational level, as well as the more informal use of incentives by individuals, such as employees in self- managed teams and private individuals in ‘peer production’ models such as Wikipedia (Benkler, 2006).